If a layer, say 0. Considering that good satellite data on meteoritic influx were available before Morris 92 and Slusher published their papers, they obviously have been highly selective in their choice of obsolete data. A more fundamental point, however, is that such calculations are based on faulty premises, including the erroneous assumptions that the meteoritic influx has remained constant for 4. Apparently, Morris and Parker 97 have credited Slusher with a calculation that he did not do. Table 10 , no. Morris 92 notes that intrusive rocks are much more common than lava flows: Thus, the entire crust could have been formed by volcanic activity at present rates in only million years, which would only take us back into the Cambrian period. The uniformitarian model once again leads to a serious problem and contradiction. Consequently the maximum age of the atmosphere, assuming no original helium in the atmosphere, would be As a matter of fact, Henry Faul Faul, has cited evidence that the rate of efflux of helium into the atmosphere … is about times greater than the value used by Cook. This in turn would reduce the age of the atmosphere down to several thousand years!
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His teachings are the central reason for this sacred Book. Within the Book of Mormon itself evidences are provided which attest to its truthfulness. This includes some of the animals mentioned as well as plants, materials raw and manufactured , culture s , words used and more. The degree of consistency concerning all these topics in our view overwhelmingly indicates that Joseph Smith could not have written the Book of Mormon of his own knowledge.
Even the most informed experts of his day would not have known much about the archaeological or other scientific details given in this Book. At age 22, when Joseph Smith Jr.
Biotite is a common rock forming mineral, being present in at least some percentage in most igneous and both regional and contact metamorphic rocks. Mica provides us with reflective qualities so that we can recognize the flaws of our humanity while staying heart centred so that we can love what we see here.
In building a carbon atom from 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons: When separate nucleons protons and neutrons are brought together to form a nucleus, a tiny percentage of their mass is instantly converted to a large amount of energy. That energy usually measured in units of millions of electron volts, or MeV is called binding energy, because an extremely strong force inside the nucleus tightly binds the nucleons together—snaps them powerfully together—producing a burst of heat.
For example, a deuterium hydrogen-2 nucleus contains a proton and a neutron. Its nucleus has a total binding energy of about 2. If two deuterium nuclei merge to become helium, 2. The gain in binding energy becomes emitted heat. This merging of light nuclei is called fusion. The Sun derives most of its heat by the fusion of deuterium into helium.
Animals in the Book of Mormon: Challenges and Perspectives
These are K-Ar data obtained on glauconite, a potassium-bearing clay mineral that forms in some marine sediment. Woodmorappe fails to mention, however, that these data were obtained as part of a controlled experiment to test, on samples of known age, the applicability of the K-Ar method to glauconite and to illite, another clay mineral. He also neglects to mention that most of the 89 K-Ar ages reported in their study agree very well with the expected ages.
Evernden and others 43 found that these clay minerals are extremely susceptible to argon loss when heated even slightly, such as occurs when sedimentary rocks are deeply buried. As a result, glauconite is used for dating only with extreme caution.
Piltdown Man–Eanthropus dawsoni or “dawn man.” Discovered in by Charles Dawson, a medical doctor and amateur paleontologist. Dawson found a mandible and a small piece of a skull in a gravel pit near Piltdown England.
Moon Dust and the Age of the Solar System Answers in Genesis , the leading young-earth creationist ministry, disowns cosmic dust arguments. The most amazing thing about the cosmic dust argument is that it is still being used! It has coasted along on obsolete evidence, and nothing but obsolete evidence, for the last 25 years!! It nicely illustrates how creationists borrow from each other and never do any outside reading.
The obsolescence of this argument has been brought out in numerous debates and published in countless books, journals, and newsletters. It can be discovered by anyone who exercises his or her library card. It’s not a state secret! What does it take to get through to the creationist brain??
How Old is the Earth
The first two-thirds of this essay deals with the rock formations of the Grand Canyon — what they are, and how and when they formed. This should be educational and understandable to readers without a science background. This essay is long. The low rainfall in the region reduces vegetative cover, so the colorful rock layers remain exposed to view.
This deep gash in the earth provides a window into the geological past. Nearly all geologists understand these layers to have been deposited over the course of hundreds of millions of years.
Eine Schale aus einer Schallplatte zu bauen, oder besser zu schmelzen, das gehört wohl zu den Klassikern der DIY-Kultur. Und es ist so einfach!
Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.
If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position. Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute.
Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people. They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes.
When I speak of “creation,” I am referring to the inherently obvious fact that the origin of all life forms can be attributed to a creator who purposefully created them with planning and intent, and the documented fact that this occurred over the course of a week’s time several thousand years ago. This document is not a scientific thesis, but an apologetic intended to be submitted and defended by me in an interactive, online electronic forum.
I claim no copyright on this document, and grant its use to the public domain.
Hunting the Elements
The effects of radiation on genes, including the effect of cancer risk, were recognized much later. In , Hermann Joseph Muller published research showing genetic effects and, in , was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his findings. The committee met in , and After World War II , the increased range and quantity of radioactive substances being handled as a result of military and civil nuclear programmes led to large groups of occupational workers and the public being potentially exposed to harmful levels of ionising radiation.
Units of radioactivity[ edit ] Graphic showing relationships between radioactivity and detected ionizing radiation The International System of Units SI unit of radioactive activity is the becquerel Bq , named in honor of the scientist Henri Becquerel. One Bq is defined as one transformation or decay or disintegration per second.
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Copper at 80 cents a pound. Can we crack the code to build the world of the future? Far from prying eyes, the ground erupts; heavy equipment moving millions of tons of earth in search of something: I’ve managed to talk my way into this hidden lair. Boy, I hope I can talk my way out. This area, here, has been backfilled. They tell me that so much money flows out of this place, it’s like a gold mine. It is a gold mine!
How Old is the Earth
Marshall The straits failed and flooded the Mediterranean A miembro de la familia to me wrote the following in response to a post I had made on a long running thread on his Facebook page. See, that one makes a lot of sense and is believable in some way. But there there is the submerged cities in the Mediterranean that sort of lend one to think the Straits failed and the atlantic flooded the then arid Med area.
RADIOMETRIC DATING. he question of the ages of the Earth and its rock formations and features has fascinated philosophers, theologians, and scientists for centuries, primarily because the answers put our lives in temporal perspective.
He had found them in prehistoric lake deposits along with the bones of extinct animals and concluded that they were made by people “who had not the use of metals” and that they belonged to a “very ancient period indeed, even beyond the present world”. Following visits to both Abbeville and Saint Acheul by the geologist Joseph Prestwich , the age of the tools was finally accepted.
The industry was renamed as the Acheulean in From the Konso Formation of Ethiopia, Acheulean hand-axes are dated to about 1. Not all researchers use this formal name, and instead prefer to call these users early Homo erectus. However more recent research demonstrated that hand-axes from Spain were made more than , years ago.
It is therefore important not to see the Acheulean as a neatly defined period or one that happened as part of a clear sequence but as one tool-making technique that flourished especially well in early prehistory. The enormous geographic spread of Acheulean techniques also makes the name unwieldy as it represents numerous regional variations on a similar theme. The term Acheulean does not represent a common culture in the modern sense, rather it is a basic method for making stone tools that was shared across much of the Old World.
These industries are known as the Developed Oldowan and are almost certainly transitional between the Oldowan and Acheulean. The resulting flake that broke off would have a natural sharp edge for cutting and could afterwards be sharpened further by striking another smaller flake from the edge if necessary known as “retouch”. These early toolmakers may also have worked the stone they took the flake from known as a core to create chopper cores although there is some debate over whether these items were tools or just discarded cores.
This type of hammer, compared to stone, yields more control over the shape of the finished tool. Unlike the earlier Mode 1 industries, it was the core that was prized over the flakes that came from it.
It is an opportunity for us to reflect on the language and ideas that represented each year. So, take a stroll down memory lane to remember all of our past Word of the Year selections. Change It wasn’t trendy , funny, nor was it coined on Twitter , but we thought change told a real story about how our users defined
The Secret Diary of a Jewish Housewife blog, by Breslov writer Rivka Levy.
Nuclear reactor physics An induced nuclear fission event. A neutron is absorbed by the nucleus of a uranium atom, which in turn splits into fast-moving lighter elements fission products and free neutrons. Though both reactors and nuclear weapons rely on nuclear chain-reactions, the rate of reactions in a reactor occurs much more slowly than in a bomb.
Just as conventional power-stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels , nuclear reactors convert the energy released by controlled nuclear fission into thermal energy for further conversion to mechanical or electrical forms. Nuclear fission When a large fissile atomic nucleus such as uranium or plutonium absorbs a neutron, it may undergo nuclear fission.
The heavy nucleus splits into two or more lighter nuclei, the fission products , releasing kinetic energy , gamma radiation , and free neutrons. A portion of these neutrons may later be absorbed by other fissile atoms and trigger further fission events, which release more neutrons, and so on.